Name: Date:

Changes in Sub-Saharan Africa

In the 15th century, Portuguese explorers discovered powerful states in sub-Saharan Africa. The Kongo Kingdom, East African city-states, and the inland kingdoms such as Great Zimbabwe were all part of traditional trade networks. The trade of ivory, precious metals such as gold, and other African goods existed much as it had for centuries. With the coming of the Portuguese, new goods and trade patterns were introduced that changed the lives of both the Africans and the Portuguese.

Review the medieval African states in the chart. Complete the chart by writing in the names of the products exported and imported by each. Remember that to export a product means to ship it out of a place and to import a product means to bring it into a place.

Visit your school or local library or access the Internet to help you complete the chart and questions below. Here are two hints to help you search for information:

Use a historical atlas: Look up "African States from 900 to 1500" or "Medieval Africa."

Use the Internet: Use a search engine.

Medieval African States Products Exported Products Imported
Kongo Kingdom  

1. What products did the Portuguese offer in trade to sub-Saharan Africa? What products did they expect in return?

2. How did the Portuguese change the traditional trade routes? What impacts did they have on sub-Saharan African cultures?

3. How might exploration and new trade patterns have affected Portugal?

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