Houghton Mifflin Social Studies
Lesson at a Glance Outline

Chapter 3, Lesson 3: Early Islam (pp. 65-68)

I. The First Caliph

II. The Next Two Caliphs
    A. To succeed him as caliph, Abu Bakr appointed Umar, one of Muhammad's long-time friends and advisers. Umar's armies conquered more lands in the name of Allah.

    B. Uthman, who succeeded Umar as caliph, also expanded the Muslim empire, conquering Persia and other areas.

III. Early Political Division
    A. When Uthman was murdered, the resulting struggle for power caused a civil war in the Muslim empire.

    B. Eventually, Muslims split into two groups. The Shiites believe that only members of Muhammad's family could be his successors. The Sunnis believe that the election of caliphs was valid.

    C. Today, Sunnis make up more than 80 percent of Muslims.

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