Houghton Mifflin Social Studies
Lesson at a Glance Outline

Chapter 18, Lesson 1: A New Order of Ideals (pp. 476-479)

I. Roots of the Enlightenment

II. European Philosophers

    A. In the 1600s and 1700s, European philosophers applied reason to social and political issues.

    B. Voltaire was a spokesman for individual rights and religious tolerance.

    C. Denis Diderot spread the ideas of the European thinkers who called themselves the philosophes.

III. New Ideas about Government
    A. John Locke believed that government was a contract between the people and their ruler.

    B. Baron de Montesquieu argued for limited monarchies and three branches of government.

    C. Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that the people should directly participate in government.

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