Houghton Mifflin Social Studies
Lesson at a Glance Outline

Chapter 12, Lesson 1: Europe at the End of the Middle Ages (pp. 310-315)

I. Europe in Crisis

II. Rise of Central Governments

    A. From the 1100s to the 1300s, power shifted from the nobles to monarchies, causing revolts and wars.

    B. Joan of Arc fought for the French during the Hundred Years' War.

    C. The introduction of new technology during the Hundred Years' War changed the way wars were fought.

III. Trade and Commerce

    A. Despite famines, plague, and wars, manufacturing and trade flourished.

    B. A commercial class of merchants, bankers, shopkeepers, and artisans arose in the towns.

    C. The Italians dominated European trade.

    D. Freedom to work for one's self and the lure of making money changed the values of medieval society.

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