Houghton Mifflin Social Studies
Lesson at a Glance Outline

Chapter 13, Lesson 3: Oversea Expansion(pp. 412-418)

I. The Punic Wars

II. Conquest of the Eastern Mediterranean

    A. After defeating Carthage, Rome conquered Greece and Macedonia, and by 50 B.C. controlled the entire area around the Mediterranean.

    B. Rome was successful because its people were determined, it made allies of its conquered enemies, its army was highly disciplined and experienced, it greatly valued military success, and it used the spoils of war to build up the treasury.

III. Trouble at Home
    A. Rome's farms were destroyed during the Second Punic War, and farmers could not afford to rebuild them.

    B. Landless farmers moved to the city to find work, creating a large mass of poor, jobless people.

    C. Slaves -- captured in the many wars -- were often mistreated and sometimes rebelled.

IV. Fall of the Roman Republic
    A. Rome's rapid expansion caused problems at home and conflicts broke out between the rich and poor.

    B. Julius Caesar was an ambitious general who challenged the Senate and caused a civil war.

    C. After three years of civil war, Caesar won and declared himself dictator, ending the Roman republic.

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