Instructional procedures are used to introduce new books in order to insure that students are successful in reading them.

To avoid failure or frustration for students, each new book is introduced with as much support as a teacher judges is needed. For example, a "picture walk" is often used as a before-reading activity. Students and teacher discuss the illustrations on each page. Students are asked to speculate about the text's contents, and unusual or difficult vocabulary is pointed out by the teacher and discussed. Thus, the student begins reading the book with prior knowledge and clear expectations about the selection's content.

Another frequently used technique is shared reading, in which the text is read first by the teacher as students follow along in the text. Then as a group, students progress to reading the text with teacher help as needed. Teacher support is gradually withdrawn, and students assume more responsibility. Finally, individual children practice reading the text. Instruction often moves from a shared reading model to a guided reading model in which students assume responsibility for the first reading of a selection after the teacher helps prepare them and supports them during their reading. In all the successful intervention programs there is a clear progression from much teacher support in the initial phases of the program to increasing student independence.


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