Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Allington, R. L. (1994). "The schools we have. The schools we need." The Reading Teacher, 48, 14-29.

Allington, R. L, & McGill-Franzen, A. (1989). "School response to reading failure: Instruction for Chapter I and special education students in grades two, four, and eight." The Elementary School Journal, 89, 529-542.

Blum, I. H., & Koskenen, P. S. (1991). "Repeated reading: A strategy for enhancing fluency and fostering expertise."Theory Into Practice, 30, 195-200.

Clark, L. K. (1988). "Invented versus traditional spelling in first graders' writings: Effects on learning to spell and read." Research in the Teaching of English, 22, 281-309.

Clay, M. M. (1985). The early detection of reading difficulties. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Clay, M. M. (1993a). Reading Recovery: A guidebook for teachers in training. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Cunningham, P. M. (1991). Phonics they use: Words for reading and writing. New York: HarperCollins.

Cunningham, P. M., & Cunningham, J. W. (1992). "Making words: Enhancing the invented spelling-decoding connection." The Reading Teacher, 46, 106-113.

Cunningham, P. M., Hall, D. P., & Defee, M. (1991). "Non-ability grouped, multilevel instruction: A year in a first grade classroom." The Reading Teacher, 44, 566-571.

Dowhower, S. L. (1987). "Effects of repeated reading on second-grade transitional readers' fluency and comprehension." Reading Research Quarterly, 22, 389-406.

Elley, W. B. (1992). How in the world do students read? IEA study of reading literacy. Hamburg, Germany: The International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. (Distributed by the International Reading Association.)

Gates, A. I. (1927). The improvement of reading: A program of diagnostic and remedial methods. New York: Macmillan.

Goldenberg, C. (1994). "Promoting early literacy development among Spanish speaking children: Lessons from two studies." In E. H. Hiebert & B. M. Taylor (Eds.), Getting reading right from the start (pp. 171-200). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Hall, D. P., Prevatte, C., & Cunningham, P. M. (1993). "Elementary ability grouping and failure in the primary grades." Unpublished manuscript.

Harris, A. J., & Sipay, E. R. (1990). How to increase reading ability (9th ed.). New York: Longman.

Herman, P. A. (1985). "The effects of repeated readings on reading rate, speech, pauses, and word recognition accuracy." Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 553-564.

Hiebert, E. H., Colt, J. M., Catto, S. L., & Gury, E. C. (1992). "Reading and writing of first-grade students in a restructured Chapter I program." American Educational Research Journal, 29, 545-572.

Hiebert, E. H., & Taylor, B. M. (Eds.) (1994). Getting reading right from the start. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Johnston, P., & Allington, R. L. (1991). "Remediation." In R. Barr, M. L. Kamil, P. Mosenthal, & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Handbook of reading research, Vol. II (pp. 984-1012). White Plains, NY: Longman.

Kennedy, M. M., Birman, B. F., & Demaline, R. E. (1986). The effectiveness of Chapter I services. Washington, D.C.: Office of Educational Research and Improvement, U.S. Department of Education.

Kibby, M. W. (1993). "What teachers should know about reading proficiency in the U.S." Journal of Reading, 37, 28-40.

LaBerge, D., & Samuels, S. J. (1974). "Toward a theory of automatic information processing in reading." Cognitive Psychology, 6, 293-323.

Madden, N. A., Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L. J., & Wasik, B. A. (1991). "Success for All: Ending reading failure from the beginning." Language Arts, 68, 47-52.

McGill-Franzen, A., & Allington, R. L. (1993). "Flunk `em or get them classified: The contamination of primary grade accountability data." Educational Researcher, 22, 19-22.

Nathan, R. G., & Stanovich, K. E. (1991). "The causes and consequences of differences in reading fluency." Theory Into Practice, 30, 176-184.

Pikulski, J. J. (1994). "Preventing reading failure: A review of five effective programs." The Reading Teacher, 48, 30-39.

Pinnell, G. S. (1989). "Reading Recovery: Helping at-risk children learn to read." The Elementary School Journal, 90, 161-183.

Pinnell, G. S., Fried, M. D., & Estice, R. M. (1990). "Reading Recovery: Learning how to make a difference." The Reading Teacher, 43, 282-295.

Pinnell, G. S., Lyons, C. A., Deford, D. E., Bryk, A. S., & Selzer, M. (1994). "Comparing instructional models for the literacy education of high-risk first graders." Reading Research Quarterly, 29, 8-39.

Reynolds, A. J. (1991). "Early schooling of children at risk." American Educational Research Journal, 28, 392-422.

Rowan, B., & Guthrie, L. F. (1989). "The quality of Title I instruction: Results from a study of twenty-four schools." In R. E. Slavin, N. L. Karweit, & N. A. Madden (Eds.), Effective programs for students at risk (pp. 195-219). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Samuels, S. J. (1979). "The method of repeated readings." The Reading Teacher, 32, 403-408.

Shepard, L. A., & Smith, M. L. (1989). Flunking grades: Research and policies on retention. Philadelphia, PA: Falmer.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Karweit, N. L., Livermon, B. J., & Dolan, L. (1990). "Success for All: First year outcomes of a comprehensive plan for reforming urban education." American Educational Research Journal, 27, 255-278.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Karweit, N. L., Dolan, L., & Wasik, B. A. (1992). Success for All: A relentless approach to prevention and early intervention in elementary schools. Arlington, VA: Educational Research Search.

Slavin, R. E., Karweit, N. L., & Wasik, B. A. (1992-93). "Preventing school failure: What works." Educational Leadership, 50, 10-18.

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Dolan, L. J., Wasik, B. A., Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. J. (1994). "Whenever & wherever we choose: The replication of Success for All." Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 639-647.

Stanovich, K. E. (1986). "Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy." Reading Research Quarterly, 21, 301-406.

Taylor, B. M., Frye, B. J., Short, R., & Shearer, B. (1992). "Classroom teachers prevent reading failure among low-achieving first-grade students." Reading Teacher, 45, 592-597.

Taylor, B. M., Strait, J., & Medo, M. A. (1994). "Early intervention in reading: Supplementary instruction for groups of low achieving students provided by first grade teachers." In E. H. Hiebert & B. M. Taylor (Eds.), Getting reading right from the start: Effective early literacy interventions. Needham, MA: Allyn & Bacon.

Wasik, B. A., & Slavin, R. E. (1993). "Preventing early reading failure with one-to-one tutoring: A review of five programs." Reading Research Quarterly, 28, 178-200.

Reading/Language Arts Center | Literacy Development |
Education Place | Site Index

Copyright © 1998 Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved.
Terms and Conditions of Use.