Effective Staff Development
There are many different types of staff development (Ryan,
1987). These may include grade-level meetings, building-level
meetings, or district-level meetings. The effectiveness of the
meetings is dependent upon factors such as the following:
Teachers should be involved in all aspects of
planning and implementation of the staff development
(Showers et al., 1987).
Meet Individual Needs
Individual needs of teachers should be considered.
These must take into account the teachers‘ experience,
level of expertise, teaching assignments, and professional
goals, as well as the resources available to the school
(McLaughlin, Pfeifer, Swanson-Owens,
& Yee, 1986).
Match Content to Teachers' Classrooms
Content should be introduced and applied in
situations that match those of the participants
Thorough Presentation of Ideas
Staff development sessions should:
- Present the background or theory for the innovation
- Provide a demonstration with interactive activities
and visual media
- Provide initial practice in the sessions
- Provide immediate feedback to teachers about their
(Johnson, 1989; Showers et al., 1987; Sparks, 1983; Volker,
Gehler, Howlett, & Twetten, 1986).
Expert or peer coaching should be provided to
support teachers as they try new ideas in their classrooms
(Hoffman, Roser, &Farest, 1988; McLaughlin et al., 1986;
Showers et al., 1987).
Go on to Attitudes Toward Staff Development
Back to Factors Influencing Staff Development
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