Oral Language: Speaking and Listening

Speaking and listening are aspects of oral language. Researchers have indicated for many years that there is a strong relationship between oral language and reading, writing, and thinking (Loban, 1963; Menyuk, 1984). Oral language is the base on which the other language arts develop (Sticht & James, 1984). For this reason, it is very important to continuously support students in developing oral language throughout all grades (Pinnell & Jaggar, 1991). Children and young adults develop oral language by using it (Halliday, 1975). There is reason to believe that students acquire written language skills in a similar way (Wells, 1986).

The Influence of Diverse Languages on Literacy Learning

Linguistic Classrooms are composed of many children and young Diversity in adults who come to school with a great variety of Developing language experiences (Taylor & Doresey-Gaines, 1988; Literacy Weber, 1991). Some are native English speakers who have had language experiences that differ from their peers' (Taylor & Doresey-Gaines, 1988). Others are second language learners who have native languages other than English (Allen, 1991). This diversity must be taken into account in the classroom.

Basically, our current level of understanding from research on linguistic diversity indicates that all learners develop literacy in similar ways (Weber, 1991). Therefore, what classrooms should do to help students continue to develop literacy is to provide all students with many "real" reading and writing experiences that allow them to use the language that they bring to school (Au, 1993).

See also Literature-Based Instruction and Meeting Individual Needs of All Students

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