# Overview of Section Resources

Section 1: Measuring Temperature
Students begin the module by learning how to use a thermometer. They also learn that temperature change can be tracked by using data collected from a thermometer.
Section 2: States of Matter
Through evaporation and condensation experiments, students learn that water can change from one state to another when heat is absorbed or released. They also learn how to change the freezing point of water by adding salt.
Section 3: Melting and Insulation
Students ﬁnd that an ice cube can be made to melt faster by applying heat or by increasing its surface area. They build insulation boxes to test which materials work best to keep ice from melting.
Section 4: Expanding and Contracting
Students learn that when air is heated, it expands, and when it is cooled, it contracts. Students also learn that air under high pressure will move into areas of low pressure when they collapse an empty soda bottle.
Section 5: Solar Energy
Students begin by comparing how different colors absorb solar energy. Students then predict whether insulating air under a glass jar will help raise the temperature of the system. Based on what they learn, students build and use a solar cooker.
Section 6: Energy Changes
Students begin by using mechanical energy to create heat energy. Then they experiment with a temperature-sensitive color card to see that their bodies produce heat energy. Finally, they use the stored chemical energy in a battery to run a motor.
Section 7: Elements and Atoms
Students learn the basic parts of the Periodic Table of Elements, including element names, atomic numbers, and symbols. After learning about the basic structure of an atom, students build a model of an atom.
Section 8: Surface Tension and Bubbles
Students observe that water molecules are attracted to one another and form a stretchy skin at the surface. Students learn that soap reduces the surface tension of water, and they apply this knowledge to make bubbles.
Section 9: Solutions and Crystals
Students observe how temperature affects the way solids dissolve in water. Then students grow crystals from hot and cold solutions and note how the rate of cooling affects crystal size.
Section 10: Chemical Reactions
Students learn the two telltale signs that a chemical reaction has taken place: the production of a gas and a change in temperature. Students then use baking soda, milk, and vinegar to make a familiar product—white glue.