Once you have worked through several picture stories with children and had them justify their answers in several ways, introduce written stories and have them justify what they did and the answer.

Materials: large sheets of paper for demonstration, counters, connecting cubes, beans, or other manipulatives

Preparation: Write stories such as the following on the large sheets of paper.

2 children are eating lunch. 3 more children join them. How many children are eating lunch?

5 children are eating lunch. 3 children finish and go out to play. How many children are still eating lunch?

Prerequisite Skills and Concepts: using picture stories to justify answers, addition and subtraction facts to 6

Begin by reading the first story together with the children. Make sure that all children know what the story is about.

• Ask: What does the problem tell you?
Children should say that the problem tells us that there are 2 children eating and 3 more children join the other 2 to eat lunch.

Children may suggest different strategies, but will probably say that they can add the numbers of children—2 and 3.

• If children suggest a strategy, such as drawing a picture, ask a volunteer to show it on the board.

• Ask: Can someone write the number sentence on the board?
The child should write 2 + 3 = 5.