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Excerpts from the Canandaigua Treaty of 1794—Treaty

A treaty is a written agreement between nations. Treaties provide information about relations between countries or groups, including agreements about land boundaries, natural resource use, and cooperation. Below is part of a treaty between the United States and the nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, or Haudenosaunee.

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Primary Source

A Treaty between the United States of America and the tribes of Indians called the Six Nations.

The President of the United States having determined to hold a conference with the Six Nations of Indians, for the purpose of removing from their minds all causes of complaint, and establishing a firm and permanent friendship with them… : Now, in order to accomplish the good design of this conference, the parties have agreed on the following articles, which, when ratified by the President, with the advice and consent of the Senate of the United States, shall be binding on them and the Six Nations:

ARTICLE 1. Peace and friendship are hereby firmly established, and shall be perpetual, between the United States and the Six Nations.

ART. 2. The United States acknowledge the lands reserved to the Oneida, Onondaga, and Cayuga nations, in their respective treaties with the State of New York, and called their reservations, to be their property; and the United States will never claim the same, nor disturb them, or either of the Six Nations, nor their Indian friends, residing thereon, and united with them, in the free use and enjoyment thereof; but the said reservations shall remain theirs, until they choose to sell the same to the people of the United States, who have the right to purchase…

… In witness whereof, the said Timothy Pickering, and the sachem and war chiefs of the said Six Nations, have hereunto set their hands and seals.

Done at Canandaigua, in the State of New York, the eleventh day of November, in the year one thousand seven hundred and ninety-four.

TIMOTHY PICKERING.

Excerpt from the Canandaigua Treaty of 1794.


Background

The Six Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, also known as the Haudenosaunee, includes six tribes: the Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk, and Tuscarora. They live in upstate New York, as well as in some other states and Canada. On November 11, 1794, representatives from these tribes and Colonel Timothy Pickering, the United States Commissioner to the Indians, signed this treaty in Canandaigua, New York. The treaty established a lasting friendship between the Haudenosaunee and the United States.