
Bibiography
^{1} Stevenson, Harold & James Stigler, (1992). The Learning Gap: Why Our Schools Are Failing and What We Can Learn From Japanese and Chinese Education. New York: Simon and Schuster.
^{2} Stigler, Fernandez, & Yoshida, (1996), "Cultures of mathematics instruction in Japanese and American elementary classrooms," in Thomas P. Rohlen & Gerald K. LeTendre (Eds.), Teaching and Learning in Japan (pp. 213247). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See also, Liping Ma, Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics, 1999, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 48Ð51.
^{3} For more discussion of this idea see Liping Ma, Knowing and Teaching Elementary Mathematics, 1999, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, pp. 116119.
^{4} For more discussion, see Liping Ma, Arithmetic in American mathematics education: An abandoned arena? Plenary Address at National Summit on the Mathematical Education of Teachers, 2001. Text available at: http://www.cbmsweb.org/NationalSummit/Plenary_Speakers/ma.htm.
^{5} See page 110 of Ann Brown, John Bransford, Roberta Ferrara, & Joseph Campione, "Learning, Remembering, and Understanding," 1983, in Handbook of Child Psychology: Vol. 3. Child Development (4th ed., pp. 77166), NY: Wiley.
^{6} See the discussion of transfer in either edition of How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
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